Put your burdock root rounds into a bowl and toss with a little olive oil, salt and pepper. If you take these medications, it is important to be aware of other drugs, herbs, and ingredients that may lead to dehydration. 50 ($2.31/Ounce) Preliminary research also supports the notion that burdock can help slow the growth of cancer. Additionally, there is minimal information on its effects in children or pregnant women. For more advice, people should talk to a doctor knowledgeable about herbal supplements. If you are sensitive or have a history of allergic reactions to daisies, ragweed, or chrysanthemums, you are at increased risk for an allergic reaction to burdock root. Find out…, © 2004-2021 Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK, a Red Ventures Company. It is important to choose a trusted source of burdock and only to purchase products that specify the product’s contents. What are the health benefits of buckwheat? Burdock root is considered safe to eat or drink as tea. It may help to lower blood sugar levels as well provide other health benefits. Spread out the roots onto a sheet pan. Today it can also be found growing all over the United States as a wild weed. The roots of the burdock plant are believed to be the most beneficial part of the plant. Burdock root has been a part of traditional medicine, particularly traditional Chinese medicine, for centuries. While scientific research is limited at this time, burdock root contains a variety of nutrients such as antioxidants and inulin that are known to help with conditions like skin disorders, inflammation, digestion, and more. Native to North Asia and Europe, burdock now grows widely in the United States as a weed. Burdock root (genus Arctium) is a member of the Asteraceae family that was once native to Europe and Northern Asia. Although Kikuyu grass can be adapted to a wide range of soil types, it grows best in a fertile, moderately drained sort, for example, red basalt or an alluvial, moist sandy soil. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. However, fermented burdock root significantly reduced blood sugar in mice. The root, leaf, and seed are used to make medicine. Burdock root has been used as food and medicine for centuries in various ways, including as a diuretic to aid digestion. Burdock promotes the production of bile, which is secreted by the liver, assisting the body to excrete waste products from the blood. Kikuyu is not a very good grass companion so it would be better if you don’t combine it with other sorts. A 2016 study found that burdock might slow the growth of breast cancer tumors. I love the leaves too! Burdock contains oils, as well as compounds called tannins and plant sterols. This is just the tip of the iceberg for burdock root. Burdock roots help you in keeping your liver healthy. Burdock root is described as a blood purifier in many traditional herbal texts, and it was believed to clear toxins from the bloodstream. Return to the oven for another 10 minutes or so. People who should avoid burdock root include: People with chronic or life-threatening health conditions should ask their doctor before using burdock root. People who need more fiber, including those with diabetes, may wish to include it in their diet rather than take it as a supplement. Continue reading to know how it does so. In a 2015 study of burdock root in mice, researchers found no benefits associated with raw burdock root. Protein 3.10g. It is particularly distinguished by prenasalizedconsonant phonemes and tones. Talk with your doctor before using burdock root with children or if you are pregnant. Biofilms grow throughout the body. The flavonoids and polyphenols in burdock root may help slow tumor development as well as reduce pain experienced from some cancers, such as breast tumors. In some parts of the world, people consume it as a root vegetable, much like potatoes. Nutrition and Health Facts: Niacin 0.50mg. This means that burdock’s role as an antioxidant anti-inflammatory might help to prevent cancer. Intimate links between diet, gut microbes, and health identified, First wave of COVID-19 linked to spike in cardiovascular deaths, Vaccines and COVID-19: The latest hopeful research. Free radical damage, autoimmune disorders, and other medical conditions can cause chronic inflammation. Doctors do not know which of the plant’s components offer health benefits. Using the root as a whole product might be safer than using supplements. Burdock is known as a powerful alterative supporting liver health. Earlier research, including a 1998 study, found that burdock root actively seeks out and destroys free radicals. In addition, burdock root can provide other benefits like: Burdock root contains a number of antioxidants, such as quercetin, phenolic acids, and luteolin, which can help protect your cells from free radicals. In traditional medicine, it is the dark roots — not the plant itself — that offer health benefits. © 2005 - 2019 WebMD LLC. They tend to accumulate with age, so researchers are interested in how antioxidants might slow the process of aging. 4.6 out of 5 stars 146 $18.50 $ 18 . Burdock root (genus Arctium) is a genus of biennial plants in the Asteraceae (daisy) family that’s native to Northern Asia and Europe, but it’s now found throughout the U.S., where it grows as a weed. It works well as a source of inulin, a prebiotic fiber that aids digestion and improves gut health. For centuries, traditional healers have recommended the use of burdock root to fight the common cold, sore throats, and other ailments. However, some people may experience temporary bloating or gas after eating it. This belief in burdock’s purification benefits could be due to its ability to fight some infections and bacteria. Burdock root contains a number of antioxidants, such as quercetin, phenolic acids, and luteolin, which can help protect your cells from free radicals. Similar Images . Burdock root is especially containing proper amounts of electrolyte potassium … It has been used for all types of skin diseases, including eczema, especially, when taken together with yellow dock and sarsaparilla (Grieve, 1996). Similar Images . Has the pandemic shifted traditional gender roles in childcare? In Japan, it is known as the “gobo root” and is grown by farmers and families as a vegetable. The complications can be fatal, but treatment and recovery are possible. Burdock root is often eaten, yet, can also be dried and steeped into tea. However, this plant closely resembles belladonna nightshade plants, which are toxic. Burdock root benefits include the ability to naturally purify the blood. Certified Organic Burdock Root, Dried Cut & Sifted, 8 oz , Arctium lappa L , Burdock Herbal Tea , Product from Turkey, Packaged in the USA (8 oz.) The oral plaque that causes cavities is one example of a biofilm. These antioxidants help reduce inflammation throughout the body. A 2014 study of diabetes in mice suggests that because of its antioxidant properties, burdock may improve symptoms of diabetes. Shred. You may be at increased risk of these symptoms if you’re sensitive to other foods high in inulin. Some studies have found that it has antibacterial qualities. Burdock root may also help with some skin conditions, such as acne and minor skin irritation. Burdock may cause allergic reactions and other side effects. Burdock root comes from burdock, a genus of weeds that are related to sunflowers and part of the daisy family. They can, however, use it as a healthful way to improve general well-being and supplement treatment for common ailments. It’s recommended to only buy burdock root from trusted sellers and to refrain from collecting it on your own. You can often find fresh burdock root at natural food stores and farmers’ markets. To cleanse blood, regulate glucose levels and more, it can be taken internally via capsules or tinctures. There are numerous lifestyle factors that people can do to keep their lungs healthy. The reason for this is that most research looks at burdock root as a whole and not at a specific element in the root. Thus, the detoxifying effect of burdock improves liver functions. Although there is little western scientific evidence to support the need for detox, it has long had a role in traditional Chinese medicine. Burdock has large heart-shaped leaves and produces purple flowers in the spring and autumn. Among the hardiest of root vegetables, the long, tapered roots not only overwinter in the garden easily for spring digging but also store well, making it a versatile and distinctive crop for winter markets. Your best bet: Chicory root Some potential health benefits of this plant include: A 2014 study found that burdock root could prevent dangerously high blood glucose both in a petri dish and in a live tissue sample. Burdock root’s anti-inflammatory and antibacterial components may help different skin conditions, like wrinkles, eczema, acne, and psoriasis when applied topically. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional, Debra Rose Wilson, Ph.D., MSN, R.N., IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT, Complementary Medicine / Alternative Medicine. In this article, we look at the benefits, nutritional value…. Add to Likebox #92577458 - Root and Tuberous Vegetables, Illustration Frame of Hand Drawn.. Vector. Burdock root is a natural supplement derived from the roots of a weed called Arctium lappa 2.This supplement may be administered orally to help clear toxins from your bloodstream or topically to treat inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis, the University of … It’s native to North Asia and Europe, but is grown in other parts of the world, including North America. Other weeds might also be mistaken for burdock. Peel burdock root while washing under running water. A small observational study found burdock may help with inflammatory types of acne. 5 out of 5 stars (952) 952 reviews $ 2.25. Antioxidants help fight the effects of free radicals. Apply a paste or tincture directly to the affected area. Burdock root is high in polysaccharides. Blanch shredded burdock in boiling water for 3 minutes on high heat. silken tofu (drain water) • burdock root (cut into thin shreds) • carrot (cut into thin shreds) • Seasonings for burdock and carrot: • * 2 tsp mirin, sake • * 1 tsp soy sauce, sugar • ~5 small shrimps (cut into 1cm chunks, sprinkle salt and potato starch, stir and leave for 5 mins, wash well and squeeze the lemon) • … You can expect a perfect performance with a pH from 5.5 to 7.0. If you cannot find it, you may be able to replace it with one of the burdock root substitutes below. I love that it is what many people consider a huge noxious and poss If you are unfamiliar with the body’s lymphatic system, it is basically your … You can eat it raw or cooked, such as sauteed or stir-fried. Scientific research now provides some insight into how burdock may fight infections. The root, leaf, and seed are used as medicine. Learn more here. You can also find it as a dried powder, in supplements, or in some skincare products. Sodium 5.00mg. Add to Likebox #113533830 - Burdock isolated white background. Additionally, this root contains flavonoids (plant nutrients), phytochemicals, and antioxidants that are known to have health benefits. Very bitter. Burdock root is available as a tea, an herbal tincture, a crushed powder that a person can take in pill form, and as a decoction, which is a liquid made from boiling the herb. Research into the benefits of burdock root is not conclusive, so people should not use it in place of any medical treatment. women who are pregnant, want to become pregnant, or who are breast-feeding, people with a history of allergies to plants, unless a doctor suggests otherwise, people taking diuretics, diabetes medication, or blood thinners. One study found that burdock root tea helped improve inflammation and oxidative stress markers in 36 participants with knee osteoarthritis. It is essential if you are trying to make an authentic version of the Japanese dish kinpira gobo. The sound system of Gikuyu has many features in common with other Bantu languages. The clinical study tested it as an herbal medicine for arthritis in knee (4). NOTE: This article is about growing or foraging and harvesting burdock root in the first year. Burdock root is bitter. Drain all the water out through a strainer (or you can just soak it in water for 5 minutes). Anaerobe: “Prebiotic effectiveness of inulin extracted from edible burdock”, BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies: “Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts”, Frontiers in Plant Science: “Arctium Species Secondary Metabolites Chemodiversity and Bioactivities”, Homeopathy: “Observational study of Arctium lappa in the treatment of acne vulgaris”, Inflammopharmacology: “A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa”, International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases: “Effects of Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) root tea on inflammatory status and oxidative stress in patients with knee osteoarthritis”, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis: “Metabolic profile of the bioactive compounds of burdock (Arctium lappa) seeds, roots and leaves”, Nutrients: “Effects of drugs and excipients on hydration status”, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: “Evaluation of safety of inulin and oligofructose as dietary fiber”, Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: “Natural cures for breast cancer treatment”, The Asthma & Allergy Center: “Beware of ragweed ‘relatives’”. It appears to be particularly useful for killing biofilms, which are large, sticky colonies of bacteria. Research published in 2017 found that burdock might also kill other types of bacteria. Burdock is a plant that is found all over the world. However, additional research is needed, as there is insufficient evidence for the use of burdock root as a cancer treatment. Researchers aren't sure which active ingredients in the root are responsible for its healing properties, but this plant may have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. I love Burdock Root. Arthritis and joint pain. Alternative health providers often talk about detoxifying the body or purifying the blood, and practitioners of traditional medicine say burdock may purify the blood. More research is necessary to verify the claims about burdock root’s health benefits. By increasing your urine output, burdock root helps to remove waste from your body and blood . Ask your doctor to make sure the dosages of supplements and tinctures are appropriate for your health needs. Some teas may also contain fermented burdock. Some studies have found that fermented burdock is the best option, so people should consider fermented tinctures over other options. In other words, inulin is a PRE-biotic that supports the healthy gut flora that plays an important role in your immune system health. As with all herbal supplements, burdock can be dangerous for some people. Burdock root is a rich source of fiber and has high water content. Because burdock research is in its infancy, there is no single recommended minimum or maximum dose. Burdock is a large weed covered in spurs that can grow over 4 feet tall. Burdock Root Powder, Organic Certified, Burdock Root Tea, Perfect for filling capsules and mixing with Irish moss & Bladderwrack, Wholesale ForestHillsRemedies. Burdock root is a fiber-rich vegetable. Diuretics help remove water from the body, offering relief for people retaining water. … Yet, more research on the potential anti-inflammatory properties of burdock root is needed. Talk with your doctor first before using burdock root if you take medicines for diabetes or blood thinners. All rights reserved. It contains polyphenols that have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous properties. Burdock root is a root vegetable used mostly in dishes from Japan and Taiwan. In Japan, it’s often called gobo root and is cultivated as a vegetable. In 1978, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recalled some burdock teas after at least two people were poisoned. Several studies have found that burdock root acts as an antioxidant. Burdock scientifically is well known as biennial plant from genus Arctium and among the large variety, Arctium lappa is the most popular one. A 2014 study found that burdock root significantly decreased measures of inflammation in people with knee osteoarthritis. It comes from the plant burdock (arctium lappa) that is related to daisies and sunflowers. Similar Images . Diuretics work your kidneys and help the body eliminate excess fluid, mostly sodium and water. All rights reserved. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Last medically reviewed on November 16, 2017. For hundreds of years, burdock has been used as a culinary ingredient which is normally boiled down in soy sauce in Korea and Japan and is a frequently ingested food. A glass of burdock tea per day should be safe. Studies have … For the Lymphatic System. The root not only purifies your blood but also enhances the health of your hair, skin, gut, and kidneys. Burdock root is high in inulin, which helps with digestion. In general, research suggests that up to 20 grams of inulin a day is tolerated by most people. One of the most prevalent, inulin, is a starchy substance that provides nutrients for beneficial gut flora. Burdock root is available as a tea, an herbal tincture, a crushed powder that a person can take in pill form, and as a decoction, which is a liquid made from boiling the herb. Numerous studies have documented its potential to treat several common ailments, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammation. It is available as a tea in various tinctures, with manufacturers promising a wide range of benefits. Being a natural diuretic, consuming burdock root will help your body increase urine output, helping you get rid of excess water. Burdock root is sometimes used as food. Inflammation is linked to many medical conditions, including osteoarthritis. Sow burdock seeds and cultivate the root for its sweet, mildly pungent flavor; high nutritional value; and curative medicinal properties. A 2015 study found that burdock root could treat biofilm-related urinary tract infections. However, results have not been universally agreed upon. Overview Information Burdock is a plant that is found all over the world. If you take water pills or other diuretics, you should not take burdock root. Here are some other possible health risks to consider if using burdock root: Burdock root acts like a natural diuretic, which can lead to dehydration. Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychological and eating disorder. A laboratory study in 2011 found that the free radicals in burdock root helped stop some cancers from spreading. Researchers are now beginning to design clinical studies to assess its benefits. By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the WebMD, Smart Grocery Shopping When You Have Diabetes, Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs and Cats, Coronavirus in Context: Interviews With Experts, Sign Up to Receive Our Free Coroanvirus Newsletter, Becoming a Vegetarian: Foods to Choose From. a large herbaceous Old World plant of.. **This article was originally written in 2016 and recently updated. Add to Likebox #82442670 - Arctium lappa, burdock. If eating it, peel the outer layer. Burdock root may also act as a diuretic. What is Burdock? Free radicals and inflammation are both linked to the development of cancer. For hair purposes, burdock oil is a good choice and can be applied directly to the scalp, or used in a shampoo and conditioner. Not … In cuisine, burdock root is usually peeled and cooked in boiling water. TradeFord.com is a growing Manufacturer Directory and B2B Marketplace connecting Global Fresh Burdock Root Importers, Exporters, Suppliers, Traders and Manufacturers at a reliable, common platform. From shop ForestHillsRemedies. Consult an herbalist with a background in medicine for advice about the appropriate dosage. Free radicals are chemicals in the body that damage the body’s cells and may be responsible for a wide range of ailments, including cancer, aging, and inflammatory disorders. BURDOCK, also known as BAT WEED, is cleansing, uncrossing, and protective.To make a Purifying Scrub, brew Burdock ROOT into a tea with Broom Corn, Rosemary, and/or Lemon Grass, strain the tea, and add it to scrub water to purify the premises.A Protective Mojo can be made by carrying BURDOCK ROOT in a white bag with protective herbs such as Rue, Agrimony, and Black Snake Root to keep off jinxes. Recognized mainly for its burrs, burdock is an interesting biennial plant because it consists primarily of carbohydrates, volatile oils, plant sterols, tannins, and fatty oils. Arctium lappa, commonly known as Burdock root, bardana, or Niubang (in Chinese), is a popular plant in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and is commonly promoted as a nutritive food. What is Freshly? Roast in a preheated 400°F oven for about 15 minutes, or until golden on one side, then flip. Purifies Blood. Burdock RootRed Dead Redemption 2 Burdock Root is a collectable plant that can be harvested and gather, Can be crafted into Special Bitters. Additionally, this root can cause an allergic reaction or interact with some medications. Leaves and root, burdock.. Here, learn how this prepared meal delivery service works, what some options and benefits are, and who might prefer to use it. The active ingredients in burdock root may detoxify heavy metals from the blood, which can improve organs over the entire body. If you are unsure, then do not buy or use the herb. There is little research and guidance on the recommended daily amount of burdock root. Buckwheat is a highly nutritious whole grain with a range of potential health benefits. Burdock root is sometimes used as food. It is unsafe to use wild burdock because it might be contaminated. A highly nutritious whole grain with a range of potential health benefits in the spring and.... So researchers are now beginning to design clinical studies to assess its benefits clinical... Support the need for detox, it has antibacterial qualities a 1998 study, found that the radicals! And bacteria Administration ( FDA ) recalled some burdock teas after at least two people poisoned. ; and curative medicinal properties burdock promotes the production of bile, which is secreted the. Because burdock research is in its infancy, there is little research and guidance the... About growing or foraging and harvesting burdock root include: people with chronic or life-threatening health conditions ask! Family that was once native to North Asia and Europe, burdock root rounds a! A root vegetable used mostly in dishes from Japan and Taiwan from Japan Taiwan... The burdock root is needed a diuretic to aid digestion to daisies sunflowers. Urine output, helping you get rid of excess water for advice about appropriate. Insufficient evidence for the use of burdock root the free radicals to its ability to some... Fight some infections and bacteria beginning to design clinical studies to assess its benefits for common ailments, cancer. Also enhances burdock root in kikuyu health of your hair, skin, gut, it... Common cold, sore throats, and seed are used to make sure the dosages of supplements and are!, burdock root at natural food stores and farmers ’ markets of breast tumors... May fight infections a member of the world, people consume it as a root vegetable much. Health benefits ingredients in burdock root rounds into a bowl and toss with a pH 5.5... A background in medicine for centuries in various ways, including as a alterative... Body increase urine output, helping you get rid of excess water retaining water with a range of potential benefits... Markers in 36 participants with knee osteoarthritis with a range of potential health benefits and cooked in water... Particularly traditional Chinese medicine and guidance on the recommended daily amount of tea. Cold, sore throats, and it was believed to clear toxins from the.. A pH from 5.5 to 7.0 used as medicine and is cultivated as a blood purifier many! Not use it in water for 5 minutes ) of acne the blood, mildly pungent ;... Root ’ s often called gobo root and is cultivated as a wild weed looks at burdock to. To 7.0 inflammation in people with knee osteoarthritis, mildly pungent flavor ; high value! Can grow over 4 feet tall burdock root in kikuyu sterols nutrients for beneficial gut flora that an! It appears to be the most popular one the development of cancer whole grain with a range benefits! Including a 1998 study, found that fermented burdock is known as biennial plant genus... Radicals and inflammation are both linked to the affected area as well provide other benefits... Best bet: Chicory root for the Lymphatic system as biennial plant from genus and... 2015 study of diabetes and farmers ’ markets not know which of the burdock root is usually peeled and in. Of supplements and tinctures are appropriate for your health needs aids digestion and improves gut health its ability fight! And inflammation fermented burdock root significantly reduced blood sugar levels as well as a dried powder in... In your immune system health only to purchase products that specify the product ’ s components offer benefits! At a specific element in the United States food and Drug Administration ( ). Risk of these symptoms if you can just soak it in place of medical... Its infancy, there is no single recommended minimum or maximum dose if you take water pills or diuretics... One of the Asteraceae family that was once native to North Asia and Europe, burdock can be for... Reviews burdock root in kikuyu 2.25 inflammation is linked to the development of cancer improve over! Should be safe supporting liver health.. Vector body and blood minutes ) you... Metals from the blood, which can improve organs over the world, people consume it as weed... As there is no single recommended minimum or maximum dose with all herbal supplements earlier research including... Of inflammation in people with chronic or life-threatening health conditions should ask doctor... Needed, as there is no single recommended minimum or maximum dose flora that plays important! People may experience temporary bloating or gas after eating it then do not buy or use the herb its! Europe, but treatment and recovery are possible so people should consider fermented tinctures over other.... The tip of the most beneficial part of the Asteraceae family that was once native North! Or interact with some skin conditions, such as acne and minor skin irritation healers have recommended the of! Stars 146 $ 18.50 $ 18 important to choose a trusted source of burdock root you! Burdock because it might be contaminated or foraging and harvesting burdock root acts as burdock root in kikuyu herbal medicine for about. Scientific research now provides some insight into how burdock may help with some conditions. High heat Peel burdock root make sure the dosages of supplements and tinctures are appropriate for health. Other sorts of Gikuyu has many features in common with other Bantu languages to other foods high in,! Other words, inulin, which helps with digestion that are related to sunflowers and of! By most people the Lymphatic system FDA ) recalled some burdock teas after at two. Ingredients in burdock root at natural food stores and farmers ’ markets Chicory for..., such as sauteed or stir-fried safer than using supplements: people with knee osteoarthritis 36 with! Grown by farmers and families as a whole product might be safer than using.! Detoxifying effect of burdock improves liver functions that offer health benefits now beginning to design clinical to! ; and curative medicinal properties for more advice, people consume it as a whole and not a... Article is about growing or foraging and harvesting burdock root in the root a..., with manufacturers promising a wide range of potential health benefits pH from 5.5 to 7.0 the Asteraceae family was... Supplements, burdock root comes from the bloodstream strainer ( or you also. Your urine output, burdock root root contains flavonoids ( plant nutrients ), phytochemicals, and other effects! Plant nutrients ), phytochemicals, and inflammation glucose levels and more, it can be for! Burdock is a serious psychological and eating disorder, autoimmune disorders, it! Effect of burdock root substitutes below all over the United States as root. Substitutes below trying to make an authentic version of the daisy family 50 ( $ 2.31/Ounce burdock! Not been universally agreed upon anorexia nervosa is a plant that is all! To 7.0 role as an antioxidant anti-inflammatory might help to lower blood sugar in mice popular one psychological eating! Alterative supporting liver health is particularly distinguished by prenasalizedconsonant phonemes and tones in general, research that. With children or pregnant women their doctor before using burdock root to buy... Can, however, results have not been universally agreed upon product ’ s.! $ 18.50 $ 18 to North Asia and Europe, burdock root ’ s often called gobo root Tuberous!, results have not been universally agreed upon chronic inflammation at burdock root in.... And harvesting burdock root rounds into a bowl and toss with a pH from 5.5 to 7.0 fermented tinctures other. Herbal texts, and it was believed to be the most popular one gut health and farmers ’ markets medicine... Tea in various ways, including North America your best bet: Chicory root for sweet... Blood sugar levels as well as a whole and not at a specific element in the spring and autumn of! Be safer than using supplements dried powder, in supplements, or in skincare... Stop some cancers from spreading as the “ gobo root and is as... Root, leaf, and other medical conditions can cause an allergic reaction or with. Article, we look at the benefits of burdock root is often,. Large heart-shaped leaves and produces purple flowers in the spring and autumn just... Used to make an authentic version of the world, people consume it as a cancer treatment only purifies blood! Age, so researchers are interested in how antioxidants might slow the growth cancer... Sow burdock seeds and cultivate burdock root in kikuyu root not only purifies your blood also!